The per capita consumption of Pork is highest in Nagaland in India. In Nagaland, the tribals’ prefer to consume home grown fresh Pork. Also, there is a cultural preference to black pigs. The pig farming is intermingled with socio-cultural practices of Nagas’. There is an annual demand of almost sixty thousand metric tonnes of pork. But the state’s own production is around thirty thousand tonnes. Therefore, the state is deficit by almost 50%. This demand and supply gap is further increasing owing to increase in human population and decrease in pig population of Nagaland. It imports live pigs as far as from Punjab, Haryana and southern states to meet its demand.
To address the problem of low productivity of Pig production system in Nagaland, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi has implemented the ICAR-Mega Seed Project on Pig at ICAR-Research Complex for North-Eastern Hill Region, Nagaland Centre, Medziphema since the Year - 2009.
In this Project, the technology of Pig production with Rani Pig was standardized and developed at the Centre. The Rani Pig is a cross of Hampshire and Gunghroo Pig developed at ICAR-NRC on Pig. In Nagaland, the Rani Pig has an average daily body weight gain of 280 to 350 Grams. The sexual maturity age is 7 to 10 Months. The average litter size at Birth is 8 to 12 Piglets. In a well managed farm, the Rani Pig farrows two times in a Year. Therefore, it produces 16 to 24 Piglets in one Year. The lifetime productivity (in 5 Years) is 80 to 120 Piglets.
The ICAR-Research Complex for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre is continuously striving to increase the pig production system in Nagaland on a sustainable basis. Under the Mega Seed Project on Pig, the Centre has provided 6,500 improved germplasm of Pigs to the different stakeholders. Besides, the Centre has trained around 1,000 persons in modern Pig production technologies. Due to its consistent efforts, there has been an increase in the Pig Breeder Farms over the Year. It has provided the handholding to the Young Entrepreneurs in Pig Farming to promote the Pig Breeding.
Shri Seve Vadeo, a Young Entrepreneur from Chakesang Tribe in Seithekema, a Village, Dimapur District, Nagaland came in contact with the ICAR-Research Complex for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre in 2017 with his plan of setting a Pig Fattener Unit. The Centre provided him with the training on scientific modern Pig farming with emphasis on Pig Breeding.
Getting trained, Shri Seve realized the benefits of rearing the Pigs for breeding. The Centre has also provided him with the Rani Female Piglets. He got training on Artificial Insemination (AI) in Pig and keeps Male Piglets for fattening. He breeds all his animals by AI. By stocking the farm with Piglets selected from his own farm, he sells-off the other Piglets.
He is now making profit from Piglet sales, culling of sows and sale of fattened hogs. Due to the cheap pricing of AI, he is spending negligible amount on the breeding expenses which, otherwise, would require him to keep at least 4 boars of varying ages and sizes. Also, he is able to serve all his animals without missing due to the convenient availability of AI. He sells 250 to 300 Piglets in one Year and supplies the Piglets to Phek District (about 7 Hours away from Dimapur) at the rate of Rs. 7,000/- to Rs. 8,000/-.
From 2017 till now, he has sold approximately 1,000 Piglets and 250 Piglets were reared in his farm for sows or fattening. Shri Seve earns Rs. 3.5 to 4.0 Lakhs per annum from his Pig Farm.
(Source: ICAR-Research Complex for North-Eastern Hill Region, Nagaland Centre, Medziphema, Nagaland)