Advisory on Crop Protection against frost (cold wave)
The following measures are suggested to protect the sensitive crops from frost damage:
Following protection measures are suggested for pulse crops:
- Spray the crop with Thiourea @ 500 ppm (500 gm in 1000 litre water) or Sulphuric acid @ 0.1% (1 litre acid in 1000 litre water). Repeat the spray after 15 days if low temperature conditions persist/recurs.
- Apply light and frequent irrigation to protect the crops from cold / frost injury. Dry soils are poor heat conductors, store less heat and therefore result in a higher risk of frost.
- Create smoke cover over the field by burning waste materials/weeds and crop residues at night (Slow burning of farm waste around field preferably in north-west corner in the evening to create a smoke-screen over the field).
- Keep the fields weed free as the weeds blocks the sunlight and heating of the soil during daytime.
Rapeseed and mustard:
Rapeseed and mustard are more sensitive at flowering/ early pod formation stage. The frost damage may be reduced by creating favourable growth conditions and providing adequate water and nutrients. To reduce further frost damage:
- Spray 500 ppm Thiourea (500 gm in 1000 litre water) or 0.1% Sulphuric acid (1 litre acid in 1000 litre water) or 0.2% Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) solution. Repeat the spray after 10-15 days, if required.
- Light and frequent irrigation is recommended.
- Create smoke cover over the field by burning waste materials/weeds and crop residues at night.
- Keep the fields weed free.
- Loose soil surfaces reduce conduction of heat to the surface at night and therefore tend to have lower surface temperatures than compacted soils. Thus it is advisable not to cultivate the soil if frost is expected.
Many vegetable crops, mainly capsicum, chillies, brinjal and tomato are susceptible to chilling/frost.
- Since seedlings are most sensitive to frost injury, cover the nursery beds with plastic sheets / straw thatches in the evening to protect seedlings from frost. Covers should be removed during the day as air humidity would be higher under the cover and this would increase the danger of certain plant diseases.
- Apply light and frequent irrigation to vegetables.
- Well-hilled potatoes are less prone to frost damage to tubers as the covering of plant parts beneath the soil surface with a layer of soil is a way of protecting against frost.
- Row covers made of clear or black plastic can be used to create an insulated barrier overnight.
- Clear plastic mulches that increase heat transfer into the soil improve heat storage and hence provide better freeze protection. Wetting the soil before covering with clear plastic provides the best protection.
- Clouds and fog are well-known for their ability to reduce radiative heat loss from the surface. Therefore, foggers that use high pressure lines and nozzles to make fog droplets provide good protection under calm wind conditions.
- Heaters with fans may also be used to protect high value crops in small areas. The best results are obtained when the air is calm.
- In case of vegetables where the damage has exceeded 30% or more, it is recommended to re-plant the crop by raising the seedling nursery again. Fresh nurseries may be used to transplant the main crop during February. Appropriate varieties of these crops may be chosen while raising nurseries in consultation with the local horticulture experts. Such nurseries may be raised under shade nets and Borax @ 0.1% may be sprayed on the seedlings.
Long term measures
- In regions prone to frequent frosts, raising of permanent wind breaks / shelter belts on the windward side is advised.
- Grow genotypes of different flowering/maturity span to avoid failure of all crops.
(Source: Natural Resource Management Division, ICAR)
- Thunderstorms has been observed at a few places over Maharashtra and at isolated places over Uttarakhand, Delhi, West Madhya Pradesh, South Chhattisgarh and Kerala during past 24 hours.
Main Weather Observations
- Rain/snow has occurred at most places over Jammu & Kashmir and at a few places over Himachal Pradesh. Rain/thundershowers has occurred at many places over Madhya Maharashtra, Marathawada and Vidarbha; at a few places over Odisha and Kerala and at isolated places over Haryana & Delhi, east Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and interior Karnataka. Weather remained dry/mainly dry over rest of the country.
- The amounts of rainfall (in cm) recorded at 0830 hours IST of today are: Srinagar, Pahalgaon, Banihal, Parbhani and Chandrapur-5each; Koraput and Ramagundam-each; Kupwara, Quazigund, Kokarnag, Batote, Katra and Angul-3 each and Aurangabad, Nanded, Yeotmal, Bir, Adilabad, Nizamabad and Jagdalpur-2 each.
- Minimum temperatures are below normal by 2-5°C at many places over Vidarbha and Gangetic West Bengal and at a few places over Assam, Tripura, Odisha and Marathawada. They are above normal by 2-4°C at many places over Rajasthan and Gujarat State; at a few places over west Madhya Pradesh and at isolated places over Punjab, Haryana, south interior Karnataka and Tamilnadu and nearly normal over rest of the country.
- Kalpana-1: Cloud imagery at 0830 hours IST shows convective clouds over many parts of Jammu & Kashmir and some parts of Himachal Pradesh and southeast Arabian sea. Low/medium clouds are seen over parts of rest western Himalayan region, northwest, central, east, northeast and peninsular India.
Weather Forecast for next 3 days (upto 0830 hours IST of 13th March, 2014)
- Rain/snow would occur at most places over Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh during next 48 hours and at many places thereafter.
- Rain/snow would occur at many places over Uttrakhand during next 24 hours and at most places during subsequent 24 hours and at a few places thereafter.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at many places over west Uttar Pradesh during next 48 hours and at isolated places thereafter.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at many places over Haryana & Delhi during next 24 hours; at most places during subsequent hours and at isolated places thereafter.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at a few places over Punjab during next 24 hours and at many places hours during subsequent 24 hours and at isolated places thereafter.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at isolated places over east Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Chhattisgarh during next 72 hours; over east Rajasthan and Jharkhand, coastal Andhra Pradesh, Lakshadweep, Kerala, Gujarat region and Konkan &Goa during next 48 hours and over west Rajasthan during next 24 hours.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at many places over Vidarbha during next 24 hours and decrease thereafter.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at isolated places over Arunachal Pradesh on 12th.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at a few places over Telangana and Madhya Maharashtra during next 48 hours and at isolated places thereafter.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at many places over Marathawada during next 24 hours and at a few places during subsequent hours and at isolated places thereafter.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at a few places over north interior Karnataka during next 24 hours and at isolated places during subsequent 24 hours and at isolated places over coastal & south interior Karnataka during next 24 hours.
- Mainly dry/dry weather would prevail over rest of the country.
- Latest available satellite picture (Fig.1) indicates the current cloud condition across Indian region.
- The climate outlook for the period of seven days i.e. 10th March to 18thMarch 2014 (Fig.2). Rain/snow would occur at a few places over Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand. Rain/thundershowers would occur at isolated places over Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Maharashtra, North Coastal Andhra Pradesh and West Coast of Karnataka and Nicobar Islands.
Weather Outlook for subsequent 4 days from 13thMarch to 17th March, 2014
- A fresh western disturbance would affect western Himalayan region from 15th and adjoining plains from 16thonwards.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at a few places over central India and Marathawada.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at isolated places over Arunachal Pradesh.
- Weather would be mainly dry over rest of the country
- Light rainfall received in Punjab state during past few days. The maximum temperature during past few days ranged between 18.6 to 22.8°C and minimum temperature ranged between 6.8 to 9.8°C. Agricultural operations like intercultural and irrigation in wheat sunflower gobi crops is in progress. Wheat is in earing stage and mustard in flowering to pod filling stage. No pests and diseases were noticed.
- Light to moderate rainfall was recorded in many parts of Chhattisgarh state during past few days. Agricultural operations like need based application of insecticides and irrigation in vegetables against aphids, thrips, fruit and pod borer and other pests and application of weedecide for summer rice crops are in progress. Wheat sown during first fortnight of December is at booting to jointing stage, field pea is in physiological maturity stage, gram at pod formation to seed formation stage, mustard is in flowering stage, safflower are in capsule formation stage, linseed, lentil and early sown gram are in seed formation to physiological maturity stage, solanaceous vegetables like tomato, brinjal & chilies are at flowering to fruiting stage and crucifers like cabbage & cauliflowers are in head formation stage. Low to moderate intensity of aphids, fruit borer & white fly, leaf curling and pod borer in solanaceous vegetables and chickpea crops was noticed.
- Dry weather prevailed in Assam state during past few days. The daily average maximum temperature was 26.8°C which is 1.0°C above normal and the average daily minimum temperature was 14.6°C which is 0.6°C above normal for the week. Agricultural operations like harvesting of rapeseed, mustard & normal planted potato and land preparation of summer pulses like black gram and green gram crops are in progress. Rapeseed & mustard are at harvesting stage, potato is at harvesting stage and summer vegetables are at land preparation stage. No pests and diseases were noticed.
(Source:Email: email@example.com, CRIDA, Hyderabad )
Updated on 10-03-2014 5:45 PM