Soil and Water Conservation Structures

Introduction; classification of structures, functional requirements of soil erosion control structures; flow in open channels-types of flow, state of flow, regimes of flow, energy and momentum principles, specific energy and specific force; hydraulic jump and its application, type of hydraulic jump, energy dissipation due to jump, jump efficiency, relative loss of energy; runoff measuring structures-parshall flume, H - flume and weirs; straight drop spillway - general description, functional use, advantages and disadvantages, structural parts and functions; components of spillway, hydrologic and hydraulic design, free board and wave free board, aeration of weirs, concept of free and submerged flow, structural design of a drop spillway-loads on headwall, variables affecting equivalent fluid pressure, determination of saturation line for different flow conditions, seepage under the structure, equivalent fluid pressure of triangular load diagram for various flow conditions, creep line theory, uplift pressure estimation, safety against sliding, over turning, crushing and tension; chute spillwaygeneral description and its components, hydraulic design, energy dissipaters, design criteria of a SAF stilling basin and its limitations, drop inlet spillway- general description, functional use, design criteria; design of diversions; small earth embankments-their types and design principles, farm ponds and reservoirs, cost estimation of structures.