Status, availability and utilization of dairy by-products in india and Abroad. Associated economic and pollution problems., Physico chemical characteristics of whey, butter milk and ghee residue, By-products from skim milk: a) Casein: types of commercial casein, their specifications, manufacturing processes with basic principles involved. b) Industrial and food uses of caseins c) Manufacture of sodium and calcium caseinates their physico-chemical and functional properties and food applications d) Manufacture of casein hydrolysates and its industrial application e) Cooprecipitates: types, their specifications, manufacturing processes with basic principles involved, functional properties and food applications.Whey processing: a) Fermented products from whey, b)Beverages from whey c) Deproteinized and demineralized whey d)Condensed whey e)Dried whey, types and their specification, manufacturing techniques. F)Utilization of whey products. Whey protein concentrates: a) Methods of isolation with basic principles involved, physico-chemical properties of whey proteins concentratesb) Functional properties and food applications of WPC. Lactose: methods for the industrial production of lactose, refining of lactose, uses of lactose and hydrolysis of lactose. Butter milk processing:a) Condensed butter milk b) Dried butter milk c) Utilization of butter milk products Ghee residue. Composition, processing and utilization. Nutritional characteristics of by products.