Hydraulic Basics: Pascal's Law, Flow, Energy, Work, and Power. Hydraulic Systems, Color Coding, Reservoirs, Strainers and Filters, Filtering Material and Elements. Accumulators, Pressure Gauges and Volume Meters, Hydraulic Circuit, Fittings and Connectors. Pumps, Pump Classifications, Performance, Displacement, Designs, Gear Pumps, Vane Pumps, Piston Pumps, Pump Operation. Hydraulic Actuators, Cylinders, Construction and Applications, Maintenance, Hydraulic Motors. Valves, Pressure-Control Valves, Directional- Control Valves, Flow-Control Valves, Valve. Installation, Valve Failures and Remedies, Valve Assembly, Troubleshooting Valves Hydraulic Circuit Diagrams and Troubleshooting, United States of American Standards Institute USASI Graphical Symbols Tractor hydraulics, nudging system, ADDC. Pneumatics: Air services, logic units, Fail safe and safety systems Robotics: Use of Hydraulics and Pneumatics drives in agricultural systems, PLCs (Programmable Logic Controls).