Fluid Mechanics

Units and dimensions, Properties of fluids. Static pressure of liquids: Hydraulic pressure, absolute and gauge pressure, pressure had of a liquid. Pressure on vertical rectangular surfaces. Compressible and non compressible fluids. Surface tension, capillarity. Pressure measuring devices, simple, differential, micro, inclined manometer, mechanical gauges, Piezometer. Floating bodies: Archimedes principle, stability of floating bodies. Equilibrium of floating bodies. Metacentric height. Fluid flow: Classification, steady uniform and non uniform flow, Laminar and turbulent, continuity equation, Bernolli’s theorem and its applications. Flow through pipes: Loss of head, determination of pipe diameter. Determination of discharge, friction factor, critical velocity. Flow through orifices, mouthpieces, notches and weirs, Vena contracta, hydraulic coefficients, discharge losses, Time for emptying a tank. Loss of head due to contraction, enlargement at entrance and exit of pipe. External and internal mouthpieces, types of notches, rectangular and triangular notches, rectangular weirs. Venturimeters, pitot tube, Rota meter. Water level point gauge, hook gauge. Dimensional analysis: Buckingham’s theorem application to fluid flow phenomena. Froude Number, Reynolds number. Weber number and hydraulic similitude. Pumps : Classification, reciprocating, centrifugal pump. Pressure variation, work efficiency. Types of chambers, selection and sizing.