Sanitization : Materials and sanitary features of the dairy equipment. Sanitary pipes and fittings, standard glass piping, plastic tubing, fittings and gaskets, installation, care and maintenance of pipes & fittings. Description, working and maintenance of can washers, bottle washers. Factors affecting washing operations, power requirements of can the bottle washers, CIP cleaning and designing of system. Mechanical Separation: Fundamentals involved inseparation. Sedimentation, Principles involved in filtration, Types, rates of filtration, pressure drop calculations. Gravity setting, principles of centrifugal separation, different types of centrifuges. Application in Dairy Industry, clarifiers, tri processors, cream separator, selfdisludging centrifuge, Bacto-fuge, care and maintenance of separators and clarifiers. Homogenization : Classification, single stage and two stage homogenizer pumps, power requirement, care and maintenance of homogenizers, aseptic homogenizers. Pasteurization: Batch, flash and continuous (HTST) pasteurizers, Flow diversion valve, Pasteurizer control, Care and maintenance of pasteurizers. Different type of sterilizers, in bottle sterilizers, autoclaves, continuous sterilization plant, UHT sterilization, Aseptic packaging and equipment. Care and maintenance of Sterilizers. Filling Operation: Principles and working of different types of bottle filters and capping machine, pouch filling machine (Pre-pack and aseptic filling bulk handling system, care and maintenance. Mixing and agitation : Theory and purpose of mixing. Equipments used for mixing solids, liquids and gases. Different types of stirrers, paddles and agitators. Power consumption of mixer-impeller, selection of mixing equipment in dairy industry, mixing pumps.