Definition, scope and historical development of biotechnology, achievement and future application: structure of DNA and RNA; DNA replication, protein synthesis, genetic code, mutations: Vectors, cloning strategies in bacteria and animals, DNA technology. Protoplast fusion & Tissue culture in dairy cultures. Application of biotechnology in food and dairy industry, dairy effluents. Genetic manipulation of dairy starters for improved attributes of commercial value. Dairy enzymes and whole cell immobilization. Ethical issues related to use of genetically modified foods.